Get started with the Juju SDK - Kubernetes

This tutorial will introduce you to writing a Kubernetes charm with the Juju SDK.

Prerequisites:

  • A working station, e.g., a laptop.
  • Familiarity with OOP in Python.

Contents:

Create the test environment

The Juju SDK is currently supported only on Linux. However, you can also use it on macOS or Windows by quickly creating an Ubuntu virtual machine with Multipass. This is also a good option for people who would like an isolated test environment on their existing Linux system.

First, install Multipass: Linux | macOS | Windows.

Then, open a terminal and use Multipass to launch an Ubuntu virtual machine and open a shell in it, as shown below. We’ve called ours tutorial-vm .

# Launch a VM  "tutorial-vm" with 8 GB RAM, 2 CPU cores, and 20 GB disk:
$ multipass launch -n tutorial-vm -m 8g -c 2 -d 20G
Launched: tutorial-vm

# Open a shell inside the VM:
$ multipass shell tutorial-vm
ubuntu@tutorial-vm:~$

Congratulations, your Ubuntu virtual machine is ready! Any command you type after the last terminal prompt will be inside of this virtual machine. Let’s give it a try by running the commands below. If they work, they will not just confirm that your virtual machine is working—they will also configure it so it will work properly in the rest of this tutorial.

# Install 'tree' and 'unzip':
ubuntu@tutorial-vm:~$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install tree unzip 

If for whatever reason you need to interrupt this tutorial, we recommend running multipass stop tutorial-vm to stop the instance and then multipass start tutorial-vm / multipass shell tutorial-vm to start / start and open a shell inside the instance, when you want to resume.

Install the Charmcraft CLI

We’ve got our Ubuntu test environment. We are now ready to install the Juju SDK CLI tool, charmcraft:

# Configure LXD:
$ lxd init --auto
# Install Charmcraft:
$ sudo snap install charmcraft --classic

Done!

Set up your charm project

We’ve got charmcraft. Time to set up our charm project!

First, create a directory named after your intended charm. We will call ours hello-world.

$ mkdir hello-world

Second, navigate inside that directory and run charmcraft init. As the output indicates, this has created all the directories and files that you will need to write your charm.

$ cd hello-world
$ charmcraft init
Charm operator package file and directory tree initialized.                                                                                                                                                                                  
TODO:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
      README.md: Describe your charm in a few paragraphs of Markdown                                                                                                                                                                        
      README.md: Provide high-level usage, such as required config or relations                                                                                                                                                              
      README.md: Provide any relations which are provided or required by your charm                                                                                                                                                          
      README.md: Include a link to the default image your charm uses                                                                                                                                                                        
   actions.yaml: change this example to suit your needs.                                                                                                                                                                                    
    config.yaml: change this example to suit your needs.                                                                                                                                                                                    
  metadata.yaml: fill out a display name for the Charmcraft store                                                                                                                                                                            
  metadata.yaml: fill out the charm's description                                                                                                                                                                                            
  metadata.yaml: fill out the charm's summary                                                                                                                                                                                                
  metadata.yaml: replace with containers for your workload (delete for non-k8s)                                                                                                                                                              
  metadata.yaml: each container defined above must specify an oci-image resource                                                                                                                                                            
   src/charm.py: change this example to suit your needs.                                                                                                                                                                                    
   src/charm.py: change this example to suit your needs.                                                                                                                                                                                    
   src/charm.py: change this example to suit your needs.       

You can also verify this by inspecting your charm directory using tree, as shown below:

$ tree
.
├── CONTRIBUTING.md
├── LICENSE
├── README.md
├── actions.yaml
├── charmcraft.yaml
├── config.yaml
├── metadata.yaml
├── requirements-dev.txt
├── requirements.txt
├── run_tests
├── src
│   └── charm.py
└── tests
    ├── __init__.py
    └── test_charm.py

2 directories, 13 files

Congratulations, you are ready to start writing your charm!

Write your charm

In the previous section you used Charmcraft to initialise your charm project. This created a number of files. To build a charm, you will need to start editing some of those files, most crucially src/charm.py, the metadata.yaml, and requirements.txt.

Edit the src/charm.py file

The first file you’ll want to edit is the src/charm.py file, which is the place where you put the code for your charm.

To begin with, open src/charm.py in edit mode.

$ edit src/charm.py

Then, delete all the contents of the file.

The file is pre-populated with scaffolding for creating a Kubernetes charm. However, for educational purposes, it is easiest to start from scratch.

Finally, start writing your own Python code, as follows:

First, add the code below to import the logging module from Python’s stdlib library.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import logging

Then, also add the code below to import the CharmBase class and, respectively, the main function from the charm and, respectively, the main module of the ops framework.

ops is a part of the Juju SDK. It was installed on your system when you installed charmcraft. See Ops and Ops API reference.

from ops.charm import CharmBase
from ops.main import main

Now, use the logging module to create a logger.

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

Also, start creating your own charm class. This will be a straightforward Python class which inherits from CharmBase and which we pass to the framework’s main.

class MyCharm(CharmBase):

In the scope of this class, inside the constructor, register a handler self.on_install for the self.on.install event:

    def __init__(self, *args):
        super().__init__(*args)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.install, self.on_install)

Also in the scope of this class, define the on_install event handler. To keep things simple, just make it log a simple greeting message.

    def on_install(self, event):
        logger.info("Congratulations, the charm was properly installed!")

Finally, outside of the scope of the class, register the main function, to call your charm.

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main(MyCharm)
Expand to see all the code above at once
#!/usr/bin/env python3

import logging

from ops.charm import CharmBase
from ops.main import main

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


class MyCharm(CharmBase):
    def __init__(self, *args):
        super().__init__(*args)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.install, self.on_install)

    def on_install(self, event):
        logger.info("Congratulations, the charm was properly installed!")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main(MyCharm)

Congratulations, you have a minimal functioning version of your src/charm.py file!

Edit the metadata.yaml file

The second file you should edit is the metadata.yaml file. This file is where you put information that will later help the Juju Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to correctly manage your charm.

As before, let’s delete all the pre-existing contents of this file, so you can see the process from scratch.

Now, add the following:

name: hello-world
summary: My first operator from the tutorial
description: |
  A very simple charm to demonstrate Charmcraft and the
  Python operator framework Ops.
assumes:
  - k8s-api

The most important piece here is the assumes keyword, specifying the k8s-api. This ensures that our charm will be able to run on Kubernetes.

Edit the requirements.txt file

Any Python dependencies are declared in the requirements.txt file. In our example, we only need the Operator Framework (ops). This dependency is automatically added when you initialize your charm project with charmcraft init:

$ cat requirements.txt 
ops >= 1.4.0

You can add other Pypi dependencies to that file. charmcraft will keep them up to date as part of the build process.

Pack your charm

Your operator is pure code. To share it with someone else, it helps to have a package for it, which we call a charm. A charm of an operator is like a deb of a binary: a package that can be shared, published and retrieved.

Let’s pack our charm:

$ charmcraft pack
Packing the charm                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Created 'hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm'.                                                                                                                                                                                              
Charms packed:                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
    hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm    

As the output indicates, the result is a file called hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm.

This name might vary slightly, depending on your architecture. E.g., for an arm processor, you will see arm64 rather than amd64. In the commands below make sure to enter the correct charm name.

Note in particular the .charm extension. This is really just a zip file of the code and all its dependencies, as well as the metadata. charmcraft pack just fetches the dependencies, compiles any modules, makes sure you have all the right pieces of metadata, and zips it up for easy distribution.

Take a look inside. You’ll recognise your files, and then a virtual environemnt with the Python dependencies clearly mapped out:

Expand to see the list of files
# Unzip your charm:
$ unzip -l hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm
Archive:  hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm
  Length      Date    Time    Name
---------  ---------- -----   ----
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---------                     -------
  5607942                     558 files

Congratulations, your Kubernetes charm is ready!

Deploy your charm

You now have a Kubernetes charm. Time to check that it’s functional by deploying it!

First, you’ll need to prepare your Kubernetes cloud. Use MicroK8s to create and configure a small Kubernetes cloud on your local workstation, as shown below. This cloud is by default called microk8s.

# Install Microk8s from snap:
sudo snap install microk8s --classic --channel=1.24

# Add the 'ubuntu' user to the Microk8s group:
sudo usermod -a -G microk8s ubuntu

# Give the 'ubuntu' user permissions to read the ~/.kube directory:
sudo chown -f -R ubuntu ~/.kube

# Create the 'microk8s' group:
newgrp microk8s

# Enable the necessary Microk8s addons:
microk8s enable hostpath-storage dns

Second, you’ll need to set up the charmed operator lifecycle manager (OLM) juju, make it aware of your cloud, connect it to your cloud, and prepare a workspace for your cloud. You can achieve all of this in a few lines with the code below:

#Install the Juju CLI client, juju:
$ sudo snap install juju --classic
juju 2.9.32 from Canonical✓ installed

# Register your "microk8s" cloud with juju. Not necessary, as juju recognises a MicroK8s cloud automatically, as you can see by running `juju clouds`. (If for any reason this doesn't happen, you can register it manually using `juju add-k8s microk8s`.)
$ juju clouds
Cloud      Regions  Default    Type  Credentials  Source    Description
microk8s   1        localhost  k8s   1            built-in  A Kubernetes Cluster

# Install a "juju" controller into your "microk8s" cloud. We'll name ours "tutorial-controller".
$ juju bootstrap microk8s tutorial-controller

# Create a workspace, or 'model', on this controller. We'll call ours "tutorial-model".
$ juju add-model tutorial-model

Well done! Everything is now ready for you to deploy your charm!

Before you jump to it, though, you might want to catch any errors as they happen. To that end, switch to a different terminal, open a new shell into your Multipass virtual machine where you installed Juju, and execute the following to see the logging, as shown below:

# Open a shell into the virtual machine that you created earlier, 'tutorial-vm':
$ multipass shell tutorial-vm
ubuntu@tutorial-vm:~$ juju debug-log
controller-0: 22:37:02 INFO juju.worker.apicaller [48d45f] "controller-0" successfully connected to "localhost:17070"
controller-0: 22:37:02 INFO juju.worker.logforwarder config change - log forwarding not enabled
controller-0: 22:37:02 INFO juju.worker.logger logger worker started
controller-0: 22:37:02 INFO juju.worker.pruner.statushistory status history config: max age: 336h0m0s, max collection size 5120M for hello-world (48d45fd3-bc24-467e-8f88-2378dda24211)
controller-0: 22:37:02 INFO juju.worker.pruner.action status history config: max age: 336h0m0s, max collection size 5120M for hello-world (48d45fd3-bc24-467e-8f88-2378dda24211)

Switch back to the original terminal, and let’s deploy our charm:

$ juju deploy ./hello-world_ubuntu-20.04-amd64.charm

You can watch the evolving status of the deployment with:

$ watch --color "juju status --color"

Wait a few moments to allow the Juju OLM to do its magic. If everything has gone successfully, the juju debug-log terminal should soon display a line very similar to the one below:

unit-hello-world-1: 13:26:10 INFO unit.hello-world/1.juju-log Congratulations, the charm was properly installed!

Destroy the test environment

Once you are done, you can run the code below to stop and delete your Multipass test environment.

# Stop your instance
$ multipass stop tutorial-vm

# Delete your instance permanently
$ multipass delete --purge tutorial-vm

You can also uninstall Multipass to remove any trace of this guide.

Next steps

This tutorial has introduced you to the basic process for building a Kubernetes charm in Juju. But there is a lot more to explore:

If you are wondering… visit…
“How do I…?” Juju SDK How-to docs
“What is…?” Juju SDK Reference docs
“Why…?”, “So what?” Juju SDK Explanation docs

Finally, if your question is “How can I learn more about deploying charms with Juju?”, consider also the Juju OLM docs!


Last updated a day ago.