How to write integration tests for a charm

See also: Testing > Integration

This document shows how to write integration tests for a charm.

Integration testing is only one part of a comprehensive testing strategy. See How to test a charm for unit testing and How to write a functional test for functional tests.

The instructions all use the Juju python-libjuju client, either through the pytest-operator library or directly.

See more: python-libjuju, pytest-operator

Contents:

  1. Prepare your environment
  2. Prepare the tox.ini configuration file
  3. Create a test file
  4. Build your tests
  5. Run your tests
  6. Generate crash dumps

Prepare your environment

In order to run integrations tests you will need to have your environment set up with tox installed.

See more: How to set up your development environment

Prepare the tox.ini configuration file

Check that the next information is in your tox.ini file. If you initialised the charm with charmcraft init it should already be there.

[testenv:integration]
description = Run integration tests
deps =
    pytest
    juju
    pytest-operator
    -r {tox_root}/requirements.txt
commands =
    pytest -v \
           -s \
           --tb native \
           --log-cli-level=INFO \
           {posargs} \
           {[vars]tests_path}/integration

Create a test file

By convention, integration tests are kept in the charm’s source tree, in a directory called tests/integration.

If you initialised the charm with charmcraft init, your charm directory should already contain a tests/integration/test_charm.py file. Otherwise, create this directory structure manually (the test file can be called whatever you wish) and, inside the .py file, import pytest and, from the pytest_operator.plugin, the OpsTest class provided by the ops_test fixture:

import pytest
from pytest_operator.plugin import OpsTest

The ops_test fixture is your entry point to the pytest-operator library, and the preferred way of interacting with Juju in integration tests. This fixture will create a model for each test file – if you write two tests that should not share a model, make sure to place them in different files.

Build your tests

Pro tip:

Use pytest custom markers to toggle which types of tests are being run so you can skip the destructive parts and focus on the business logic tests. See more: Discourse | Pasotti: Classify tests with pytest custom markers for quick integration testing iterations.

Test build and deploy

To build and deploy the current charm, in your integration test file, add the function below:

@pytest.mark.skip_if_deployed
@pytest.mark.abort_on_fail
async def test_build_and_deploy(ops_test: OpsTest):
    charm = await ops_test.build_charm(".")
    app = await ops_test.model.deploy(charm)

    await ops_test.model.wait_for_idle(status="active",  timeout=60)

Tests run sequentially in the order they are written in the file. It can be useful to put tests that build and deploy applications in the top of the file as the applications can be used by other tests. For that reason, adding extra checks or asserts in this test is not recommended.

The decorator @pytest.mark.abort_on_fail abort all next tests if something goes wrong. With the decorator @pytest.mark.skip_if_deployed you can skip that test if a --model is passed as a command line parameter (see Run your tests for more information).

ops_test.build_charm builds the charm with charmcraft. ops_test.model is an instance of python-libjuju 's Model class that reference the active model tracked by pytest-operator for the current module.

As an alternative to wait_for_idle, you can explicitly block until the application status is active or error and then assert that it is active.

    await ops_test.model.block_until(lambda: app.status in ("active", "error"), timeout=60,)
    assert app.status, "active"

Example implementations: charm-coredns, charm-calico

See more:

Deploy your charm with resources

See also: Resource

A charm can require file or oci-image resources to work, that can be provided to ops_test.model.deploy. In Charmhub, resources have revision numbers. For file resources already stored in Charmhub, you can use ops_test.download_resources:

async def test_build_and_deploy(ops_test: OpsTest):
    charm = await ops_test.build_charm(".")
    arch_resources = ops_test.arch_specific_resources(charm)
    resources = await ops_test.download_resources(charm, resources=arch_resources)
    app = await ops_test.model.deploy(charm, resources=resources)
    await ops_test.model.wait_for_idle(status="active",  timeout=60)

You can also reference a file resource on the filesystem. You can also use ops_test.build_resources to build file resources from a build script.

For oci-images you can reference an image registry.

    ...
    resources = {"resource_name": "localhost:32000/image_name:latest"}
    app = await ops_test.model.deploy(charm, resources=resources)
    ...

Example implementations: kubernetes-control-plane, synapse-operator, prometheus-k8s

See more:

Test a relation

To test an integration between two applications, you can just integrate them through the model. Both applications have to be deployed beforehand.

    ...
async def test_my_integration(ops_test: OpsTest):
        # both application_1 and application_2 have to be deployed
        # in the current test or a previous one.
        await ops_test.model.integrate("application_1:relation_name_1", "application_2:relation_name_2")
        await ops_test.model.wait_for_idle(status="active", timeout=60)
        # check any assertion here
    ....

Example implementations: slurmd-operator

See more: python-libjuju | model.integrate

Test a configuration

See also: Configuration

You can set a configuration option in your application and check its results.

async def test_config_changed(ops_test: OpsTest):
    ...
        await ops_test.model.applications["synapse"].set_config({"server_name": "invalid_name"})
        # In this case, when setting server_name to "invalid_name" 
        # we could for example expect a blocked status.
        await ops_test.model.wait_for_idle(status="blocked",  timeout=60)
    ....

See also: How to add a configuration option to a charm

See also: python-libjuju | application.set_config

Test an action

See also: Action

You can execute an action on a unit and get its results.

async def test_run_action(ops_test: OpsTest):
    action_register_user = await ops_test.model.applications["myapp"].units[0].run_action("register-user", username="ubuntu")
    await action_register_user.wait()
    assert action_register_user.status == "completed"
    password = action_register_user.results["user-password"]
    # We could for example check here that we can login with the new user

See also: python-libjuju | unit.run_action

Interact with the workload

To interact with the workload, you need to have access to it. This is dependent on many aspects of your application, environment and network topology.

You can get information from your application or unit addresses using await ops_test.model.get_status. That way, if your application exposes a public address you can reference it. You can also try to connect to a unit address or public address.

async def test_workload_connectivity(ops_test: OpsTest):
    status = await ops_test.model.get_status()
    address = status.applications['my_app'].public_address
    # Or you can try to connect to a concrete unit
    # address = status.applications['my_app'].units['my_app/0'].public_address
    # address = status.applications['my_app'].units['my_app/0'].address
    appurl = f"http://{address}/"
    r = requests.get(appurl)
    assert r.status_code == 200

How you can connect to a private or public address is dependent on your configuration, so you may need a different approach.

Example implementations: mongodb-k8s-operator, tempo-k8s-operator, synapse

See more:

Run a subprocess command within Juju context

You can run a command within the Juju context with:

    ...
    command = ["microk8s", "version"]
    returncode, stdout, stderr = await ops_test.run(*command, check=True)
   ...

You can similarly invoke the Juju CLI. This can be useful for cases where python-libjuju sees things differently than the Juju CLI. By default the environment variable JUJU_MODEL is set, so you don’t need to include the -m parameter.

    ....
    command = ["secrets"]
    returncode, stdout, stderr = await ops_test.juju(*command, check=True)
    ....

Example implementations: prometheus-k8s-operator, hardware-observer-operator

See more:

Use several models

You can use pytest-operator with several models, in the same cloud or in different clouds. This way you can, for example, integrate machine charms with Kubernetes charms easily.

You can track a new model with:

    new_model = await ops_test.track_model("model_alias",
                                           cloud_name="cloud_name",
                                           credential_name="credentials")

track_model will track a model with alias model_alias (not the real model name). It maybe necessary to use credential_name if you do not use the same cloud that the controller.

Using the new alias, you can switch context to the new created model, similar to juju switch command:

    with ops_test.model_context("model_alias"):
        # Here ops_test.model relates to the model referred by <model_alias>
        # You can now use ops_test.model and it will apply to the model in the context

pytest-operator will handle the new created model by default. If you want to, you can remove it from the controller at any point:

    await ops_test.forget_model("model_alias")

Example implementations: charm-kubernetes-autoscaler

See more:

Deploy a bundle

It is not recommended to use ops_test.build_bundle and ops_test.deploy_bundle until this issue is closed, as it uses juju-bundle which is outdated. You can deploy bundles using ops_test.model.deploy or ops_test.juju.

Render bundles and charms

pytest-operator has utilities to template your charms and bundles using Jinja2.

To render a kubernetes bundle with your current charm, create the file ./test/integration/bundle.yaml.j2 with this content:

bundle: kubernetes
applications:
  my-app:
    charm: {{ charm }}
    scale: {{ scale }}

You can now add the next integration test that will build an deploy the bundle with the current charm:

async def test_build_and_deploy_bundle(ops_test: OpsTest):
    charm = await ops_test.build_charm(".")

    bundle = ops_test.render_bundle(
        'tests/integration/bundle.yaml.j2',
        charm=charm,
        scale=1,
    )
    juju_cmd = ["deploy", str(bundle)]
    rc, stdout, stderr = await ops_test.juju(*juju_cmd)

Example implementations: hardware-observer-operator

Speed up update_status with fast_forward

If your charm code depends on the update_status event, you can speed up its firing rate with fast_forward. Inside the new async context you can put any code that will benefit from the new refresh rate so your test may execute faster.

    ...
    app = await ops_test.model.deploy(charm)

    async with ops_test.fast_forward():
        await ops_test.model.wait_for_idle(status="active",  timeout=120)
    ....

Example implementations postgresql-k8s-operator, synapse-operator

See more:

Run your tests

By default you can run all your tests with:

tox -e integration

These tests will use the context of the current controller in Juju, and by default will create a new model per module, that will be destroyed when the test is finished. The cloud, controller and model name can be specified with the parameters --cloud, --controller and --model parameters.

If you specify the model name and do not delete the model on test tear down with the parameter --keep-models, you can reuse a model from a previous test run, as in the next example:

# in the initial execution, the new model will be created
tox -e integration -- --keep-models --model test-example-model
# in the next execution it will reuse the model created previously:
tox -e integration -- --keep-models --model test-example-model --no-deploy

The parameter --no-deploy will skip tests decorated with @pytest.mark.skip_if_deployed. That way you can iterate faster on integration tests, as applications can be deployed only once.

There are different ways of specifying a subset of tests to run using pytest. With the -k option you can specify different expressions. For example, the next command will run all tests in the test_charm.py file except test_one function.

tox -e integration -- tests/integration/test_charm.py -k "not test_one"

Example implementations: mysql-k8s-operator

See more:

Generate crash dumps

To generate crash dumps, you need the juju-crashdump tool .

You can install it with sudo snap install --classic juju-crashdump.

By default, when tests are run, a crash dump file will be created in the current directory if a test fails and if --keep-models is false. This crash dump file will include the current configuration and also Juju logs.

You can disable crash dump generation with --crash-dump=never. To always create a crash dump file (even when tests do not fail) to a specific location run:

tox -e integration -- --crash-dump=always --crash-dump-output=/tmp

See more:

Contributors: @natalia-nowakowska , @javierdelapuente

Last updated a month ago. Help improve this document in the forum.