See also: How to manage machines

In Juju, a machine is any instance requested explicitly (via juju add-machine) or implicitly (e.g., juju bootstrap, juju deploy, juju add-unit) from a ‘machine’ cloud.

This definition suggests that, regardless of whether the cloud is bare metal cloud, a virtual machine cloud, or a LXD container- or VM-based cloud, and regardless of whether the command targets a regular instance or rather a LXD container on a regular instance (all the commands above can apply to both), what’s being provisioned is always, from the point of view of Juju, a ‘machine’.

From the point of view of an end user, this is absolutely true, with one small caveat – even though listed in juju outputs under ‘Machines’, and in general handled via the same CLI commads as a machine, a LXD container provisioned on top of a regular cloud instance will be named after its host machine; e.g., 0/lxd/5 = LXD container 5 on machine 0.


Machines and units

When you deploy an application on a machine, there is usually one unit per machine. However, it is usually possible to optimise resources by deploying multiple units of the same or of different applications to the same machine.

Machines and system (LXD) containers

In Juju, they are both essentially the same – ‘machines’. For example, most Juju CLI commands that target machines can actually target system containers in the exact same way.

Expand to view an example

E.g., juju add-machine lxd starts a LXD container on a new machine and adds both as ‘machines’ – the only difference being that the container ‘machine’ is prefixed with the ID of its host machine and the annotation lxd:

$ juju add-machine lxd
created container 1/lxd/0

$ juju machines
Machine  State    Address         Inst id        Base          AZ  Message
0        started  juju-dadfb7-0  ubuntu@22.04      Running
1        pending                  pending        ubuntu@22.04      Creating container
1/lxd/0  pending                  pending        ubuntu@22.04      

And if you then deploy an application to a LXD container (without specifying any particular container), that will again provision two machines:

$ juju deploy postgresql --to lxd
Located charm "postgresql" in charm-hub, revision 288
Deploying "postgresql" from charm-hub charm "postgresql", revision 288 in channel 14/stable on ubuntu@22.04/stable
ubuntu@charm-dev:~/.local/share/juju$ juju machines
Machine  State    Address         Inst id              Base          AZ  Message
0        started  juju-dadfb7-0        ubuntu@22.04      Running
1        started   juju-dadfb7-1        ubuntu@22.04      Running
1/lxd/0  pending                  juju-dadfb7-1-lxd-0  ubuntu@22.04      Container started
2        started  juju-dadfb7-2        ubuntu@22.04      Running
2/lxd/0  pending                  pending              ubuntu@22.04      acquiring LXD image

Machine designations

In Juju, many different commands have a machine argument. The shape of this argument depends on whether the machine is existing vs. new and a regular cloud instance vs. a LXD container on top of a regular cloud instance. The argument can also contain combinations, in comma-separated format. The examples below illustrate all the various cases:

shape of the machine argument meaning
a new machine
0 machine 0
0,4 machines 0 and 4
lxd a new LXD container on a new machine
lxd:25 a new LXD container on machine 25
0/lxd/4 LXD container 4 on machine 0
3,0/lxd/2,lxd:5 machine 3, LXD container 2 on machine 0, and a new LXD container on machine 5

Machine customisation

A machine’s specific hardware can be customised via constraints.

Last updated a month ago.