Command 'juju bootstrap'

Usage:

juju bootstrap [options] [<cloud name>[/region] [<controller name>]]

Summary:

Initializes a cloud environment.

Global Options:

--debug  (= false)

Equivalent to --show-log --logging-config==DEBUG

-h, --help  (= false)

Show help on a command or other topic.

--logging-config (= "")

Specify log levels for modules

--quiet  (= false)

Show no informational output

--show-log  (= false)

If set, write the log file to stderr

--verbose  (= false)

Show more verbose output

Command Options:

-B, --no-browser-login  (= false)

Do not use web browser for authentication

--add-model (= "")

Name of an initial model to create on the new controller

--agent-version (= "")

Version of agent binaries to use for Juju agents

--auto-upgrade  (= false)

After bootstrap, upgrade to the latest patch release

--bootstrap-constraints (= "")

Specify bootstrap machine constraints

--bootstrap-image (= "")

Specify the image of the bootstrap machine

--bootstrap-series (= "")

Specify the series of the bootstrap machine

--build-agent  (= false)

Build local version of agent binary before bootstrapping

--clouds  (= false)

Print the available clouds which can be used to bootstrap a Juju environment

--config  (= )

Specify a controller configuration file, or one or more configuration options (--config config.yaml [--config key=value ...])

--constraints (= "")

Set model constraints

--controller-charm-channel (= "3.0/stable")

The Charmhub channel to download the controller charm from (if not using a local charm)

--controller-charm-path (= "")

Path to a locally built controller charm

--credential (= "")

Credentials to use when bootstrapping

--db-snap (= "")

Path to a locally built .snap to use as the internal juju-db service.

--db-snap-asserts (= "")

Path to a local .assert file. Requires --db-snap

--force  (= false)

Allow the bypassing of checks such as supported series

--keep-broken  (= false)

Do not destroy the provisioned controller instance if bootstrap fails

--metadata-source (= "")

Local path to use as agent and/or image metadata source

--model-default  (= )

Specify a configuration file, or one or more configuration options to be set for all models, unless otherwise specified (--model-default config.yaml [--model-default key=value ...])

--no-switch  (= false)

Do not switch to the newly created controller

--regions (= "")

Print the available regions for the specified cloud

--storage-pool  (= )

Specify options for an initial storage pool. ‘name’ and ‘type’ are required, plus any additional attributes (--storage-pool pool-config.yaml [--storage-pool key=value ...])

--to (= "")

Placement directive indicating an instance to bootstrap

Details:

Used without arguments, bootstrap will step you through the process of initializing a Juju cloud environment. Initialization consists of creating a ‘controller’ model and provisioning a machine to act as controller.

We recommend you call your controller ‘username-region’ e.g. ‘fred-us-east-1’ See --clouds for a list of clouds and credentials. See --regions <cloud> for a list of available regions for a given cloud.

Credentials are set beforehand and are distinct from any other configuration (see juju add-credential).

The ‘controller’ model typically does not run workloads. It should remain pristine to run and manage Juju’s own infrastructure for the corresponding cloud. Additional models should be created with juju add-model for workload purposes.

Note that a ‘default’ model is also created and becomes the current model of the environment once the command completes. It can be discarded if other models are created.

If --bootstrap-constraints is used, its values will also apply to any future controllers provisioned for high availability (HA).

If ‘–constraints’ is used, its values will be set as the default constraints for all future workload machines in the model, exactly as if the constraints were set with juju set-model-constraints.

It is possible to override constraints and the automatic machine selection algorithm by assigning a “placement directive” via the --to option. This dictates what machine to use for the controller. This would typically be used with the MAAS provider (--to <host>.maas).

You can change the default timeout and retry delays used during the bootstrap by changing the following settings in your configuration (all values represent number of seconds):

# How long to wait for a connection to the controller
bootstrap-timeout: 1200 # default: 20 minutes

# How long to wait between connection attempts to a controller

address. bootstrap-retry-delay: 5 # default: 5 seconds

# How often to refresh controller addresses from the API server.
bootstrap-addresses-delay: 10 # default: 10 seconds

It is possible to override the series Juju attempts to bootstrap on to, by supplying a series argument to --bootstrap-series.

An error is emitted if the determined series is not supported. Using the --force option to override this check:

juju bootstrap --bootstrap-series=focal --force

Private clouds may need to specify their own custom image metadata and tools/agent. Use --metadata-source whose value is a local directory.

By default, the Juju version of the agent binary that is downloaded and installed on all models for the new controller will be the same as that of the Juju client used to perform the bootstrap. However, a user can specify a different agent version via --agent-version option to bootstrap command. Juju will use this version for models’ agents as long as the client’s version is from the same Juju release series. In other words, a 2.2.1 client can bootstrap any 2.2.x agents but cannot bootstrap any 2.0.x or 2.1.x agents. The agent version can be specified a simple numeric version, e.g. 2.2.4.

For example, at the time when 2.3.0, 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 are released and your agent stream is ‘released’ (default), then a 2.3.1 client can bootstrap:

* 2.3.0 controller by running '... bootstrap --agent-version=2.3.0 ...';
* 2.3.1 controller by running '... bootstrap ...';
* 2.3.2 controller by running 'bootstrap --auto-upgrade'.

However, if this client has a copy of codebase, then a local copy of Juju will be built and bootstrapped - 2.3.1.1.

Bootstrapping to a k8s cluster requires that the service set up to handle requests to the controller be accessible outside the cluster. Typically this means a service type of LoadBalancer is needed, and Juju does create such a service if it knows it is supported by the cluster. This is performed by interrogating the cluster for a well known managed deployment such as microk8s, GKE or EKS.

When bootstrapping to a k8s cluster Juju does not recognise, there’s no guarantee a load balancer is available, so Juju defaults to a controller service type of ClusterIP. This may not be suitable, so there’s 3 bootstrap options available to tell Juju how to set up the controller service. Part of the solution may require a load balancer for the cluster to be set up manually first, or perhaps an external k8s service via a FQDN will be used (this is a cluster specific implementation decision which Juju needs to be informed about so it can set things up correctly). The 3 relevant bootstrap options are (see list of bootstrap config items below for a full explanation):

  • controller-service-type
  • controller-external-name
  • controller-external-ips

If a storage pool is specified using --storage-pool, this will be created in the controller model.

Available keys for use with --config are:

admin-secret:
  type: string
  description: Sets the Juju administrator password
agent-logfile-max-backups:
  type: int
  description: The number of old agent log files to keep (compressed)
agent-logfile-max-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size of the agent log file
agent-metadata-url:
  type: string
  description: URL of private stream
agent-ratelimit-max:
  type: int
  description: The maximum size of the token bucket used to ratelimit agent connections
agent-ratelimit-rate:
  type: string
  description: The time taken to add a new token to the ratelimit bucket
agent-stream:
  type: string
  description: Version of Juju to use for deploy/upgrades.
allow-model-access:
  type: bool
  description: "Determines if the controller allows users to \nconnect to models they
    have been authorized for even when \nthey don't have any access rights to the
    controller itself"
api-port:
  type: int
  description: The port used for api connections
api-port-open-delay:
  type: string
  description: "The duration that the controller will wait \nbetween when the controller
    has been deemed to be ready to open \nthe api-port and when the api-port is actually
    opened \n(only used when a controller-api-port value is set)."
application-resource-download-limit:
  type: int
  description: The maximum number of concurrent resources downloads per application
apt-ftp-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The APT FTP proxy for the model
apt-http-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The APT HTTP proxy for the model
apt-https-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The APT HTTPS proxy for the model
apt-mirror:
  type: string
  description: The APT mirror for the model
apt-no-proxy:
  type: string
  description: List of domain addresses not to be proxied for APT (comma-separated)
audit-log-capture-args:
  type: bool
  description: Determines if the audit log contains the arguments passed to API methods
audit-log-exclude-methods:
  type: list
  description: The list of Facade.Method names that aren't interesting for audit logging
    purposes.
audit-log-max-backups:
  type: int
  description: The number of old audit log files to keep (compressed)
audit-log-max-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size for the current controller audit log file
auditing-enabled:
  type: bool
  description: Determines if the controller records auditing information
authorized-keys:
  type: string
  description: Any authorized SSH public keys for the model, as found in a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
    file
autocert-dns-name:
  type: string
  description: The DNS name of the controller
autocert-url:
  type: string
  description: The URL used to obtain official TLS certificates when a client connects
    to the API
automatically-retry-hooks:
  type: bool
  description: Determines whether the uniter should automatically retry failed hooks
backup-dir:
  type: string
  description: Directory used to store the backup working directory
batch-raft-fsm:
  type: bool
  description: Allow raft to use batch writing to the FSM.
bootstrap-addresses-delay:
  type: int
  description: Controls the amount of time in seconds in between refreshing the bootstrap
    machine addresses
bootstrap-retry-delay:
  type: int
  description: Controls the amount of time in seconds between attempts to connect
    to a bootstrap machine address
bootstrap-timeout:
  type: int
  description: Controls how long Juju will wait for a bootstrap to complete before
    considering it failed in seconds
ca-cert:
  type: string
  description: Sets the bootstrapped controllers CA cert to use and issue certificates
    from, used in conjunction with ca-private-key
ca-private-key:
  type: string
  description: Sets the bootstrapped controllers CA cert private key to sign certificates
    with, used in conjunction with ca-cert
caas-image-repo:
  type: string
  description: The docker repo to use for the jujud operator and mongo images
caas-operator-image-path:
  type: string
  description: |-
    (deprected) The url of the docker image used for the application operator.
    Use "caas-image-repo" instead.
charmhub-url:
  type: string
  description: The url for CharmHub API calls
charmstore-url:
  type: string
  description: The url for charmstore API calls
cloudinit-userdata:
  type: string
  description: Cloud-init user-data (in yaml format) to be added to userdata for new
    machines created in this model
container-image-metadata-url:
  type: string
  description: The URL at which the metadata used to locate container OS image ids
    is located
container-image-stream:
  type: string
  description: The simplestreams stream used to identify which image ids to search
    when starting a container.
container-inherit-properties:
  type: string
  description: List of properties to be copied from the host machine to new containers
    created in this model (comma-separated)
container-networking-method:
  type: string
  description: Method of container networking setup - one of fan, provider, local
controller-api-port:
  type: int
  description: |-
    An optional port that may be set for controllers
    that have a very heavy load. If this port is set, this port is used by
    the controllers to talk to each other - used for the local API connection
    as well as the pubsub forwarders, and the raft workers. If this value is
    set, the api-port isn't opened until the controllers have started properly.
controller-external-ips:
  type: list
  description: Specifies a comma separated list of external IPs for a k8s controller
    of type external
controller-external-name:
  type: string
  description: Sets the external name for a k8s controller of type external
controller-resource-download-limit:
  type: int
  description: The maximum number of concurrent resources downloads across all the
    applications on the controller
controller-service-type:
  type: string
  description: Controls the kubernetes service type for Juju controllers, see https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/generated/kubernetes-api/v1.19/#servicespec-v1-core
    valid values are one of cluster, loadbalancer, external
default-series:
  type: string
  description: The default series of Ubuntu to use for deploying charms, will act
    like --series when deploying charms
default-space:
  type: string
  description: The default network space used for application endpoints in this model
development:
  type: bool
  description: Whether the model is in development mode
disable-network-management:
  type: bool
  description: Whether the provider should control networks (on MAAS models, set to
    true for MAAS to control networks
disable-telemetry:
  type: bool
  description: Disable telemetry reporting of model information
egress-subnets:
  type: string
  description: Source address(es) for traffic originating from this model
enable-os-refresh-update:
  type: bool
  description: Whether newly provisioned instances should run their respective OS's
    update capability.
enable-os-upgrade:
  type: bool
  description: Whether newly provisioned instances should run their respective OS's
    upgrade capability.
extra-info:
  type: string
  description: Arbitrary user specified string data that is stored against the model.
fan-config:
  type: string
  description: Configuration for fan networking for this model
features:
  type: list
  description: A list of runtime changeable features to be updated
firewall-mode:
  type: string
  description: |-
    The mode to use for network firewalling.

    'instance' requests the use of an individual firewall per instance.

    'global' uses a single firewall for all instances (access
    for a network port is enabled to one instance if any instance requires
    that port).

    'none' requests that no firewalling should be performed
    inside the model. It's useful for clouds without support for either
    global or per instance security groups.
ftp-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The FTP proxy value to configure on instances, in the FTP_PROXY environment
    variable
http-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTP proxy value to configure on instances, in the HTTP_PROXY environment
    variable
https-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTPS proxy value to configure on instances, in the HTTPS_PROXY
    environment variable
identity-public-key:
  type: string
  description: The public key of the identity manager
identity-url:
  type: string
  description: The url of the identity manager
ignore-machine-addresses:
  type: bool
  description: Whether the machine worker should discover machine addresses on startup
image-metadata-url:
  type: string
  description: The URL at which the metadata used to locate OS image ids is located
image-stream:
  type: string
  description: The simplestreams stream used to identify which image ids to search
    when starting an instance.
juju-db-snap-channel:
  type: string
  description: Sets channel for installing mongo snaps when bootstrapping on focal
    or later
juju-ftp-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The FTP proxy value to pass to charms in the JUJU_CHARM_FTP_PROXY environment
    variable
juju-ha-space:
  type: string
  description: The network space within which the MongoDB replica-set should communicate
juju-http-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTP proxy value to pass to charms in the JUJU_CHARM_HTTP_PROXY
    environment variable
juju-https-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTPS proxy value to pass to charms in the JUJU_CHARM_HTTPS_PROXY
    environment variable
juju-mgmt-space:
  type: string
  description: The network space that agents should use to communicate with controllers
juju-no-proxy:
  type: string
  description: List of domain addresses not to be proxied (comma-separated), may contain
    CIDRs. Passed to charms in the JUJU_CHARM_NO_PROXY environment variable
logforward-enabled:
  type: bool
  description: Whether syslog forwarding is enabled.
logging-config:
  type: string
  description: The configuration string to use when configuring Juju agent logging
    (see http://godoc.org/github.com/juju/loggo#ParseConfigurationString for details)
logging-output:
  type: string
  description: 'The logging output destination: database and/or syslog. (default "")'
lxd-snap-channel:
  type: string
  description: The channel to use when installing LXD from a snap (cosmic and later)
max-action-results-age:
  type: string
  description: The maximum age for action entries before they are pruned, in human-readable
    time format
max-action-results-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size for the action collection, in human-readable memory
    format
max-agent-state-size:
  type: int
  description: The maximum size (in bytes) of internal state data that agents can
    store to the controller
max-charm-state-size:
  type: int
  description: The maximum size (in bytes) of charm-specific state that units can
    store to the controller
max-debug-log-duration:
  type: string
  description: The maximum duration that a debug-log session is allowed to run
max-prune-txn-batch-size:
  type: int
  description: (deprecated) The maximum number of transactions evaluated in one go
    when pruning
max-prune-txn-passes:
  type: int
  description: (deprecated) The maximum number of batches processed when pruning
max-status-history-age:
  type: string
  description: The maximum age for status history entries before they are pruned,
    in human-readable time format
max-status-history-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size for the status history collection, in human-readable
    memory format
max-txn-log-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size the of capped txn log collection
metering-url:
  type: string
  description: The url for metrics
migration-agent-wait-time:
  type: string
  description: The maximum during model migrations that the migration worker will
    wait for agents to report on phases of the migration
mode:
  type: string
  description: |-
    Mode sets the type of mode the model should run in.
    If the mode is set to "strict" then errors will be used instead of
    using fallbacks. By default mode is set to be lenient and use fallbacks
    where possible. (default "")
model-logfile-max-backups:
  type: int
  description: The number of old model log files to keep (compressed)
model-logfile-max-size:
  type: string
  description: The maximum size of the log file written out by the controller on behalf
    of workers running for a model
model-logs-size:
  type: string
  description: The size of the capped collections used to hold the logs for the models
mongo-memory-profile:
  type: string
  description: Sets mongo memory profile
net-bond-reconfigure-delay:
  type: int
  description: The amount of time in seconds to sleep between ifdown and ifup when
    bridging
no-proxy:
  type: string
  description: List of domain addresses not to be proxied (comma-separated)
non-synced-writes-to-raft-log:
  type: bool
  description: Do not perform fsync calls after appending entries to the raft log.
    Disabling sync improves performance at the cost of reliability
num-container-provision-workers:
  type: int
  description: The number of container provisioning workers to use per machine
num-provision-workers:
  type: int
  description: The number of provisioning workers to use per model
provisioner-harvest-mode:
  type: string
  description: What to do with unknown machines (default destroyed)
proxy-ssh:
  type: bool
  description: Whether SSH commands should be proxied through the API server
prune-txn-query-count:
  type: int
  description: The number of transactions to read in a single query
prune-txn-sleep-time:
  type: string
  description: The amount of time to sleep between processing each batch query
public-dns-address:
  type: string
  description: Public DNS address (with port) of the controller.
resource-tags:
  type: attrs
  description: resource tags
set-numa-control-policy:
  type: bool
  description: Determines if the NUMA control policy is set
snap-http-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTP proxy value to for installing snaps
snap-https-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The HTTPS proxy value to for installing snaps
snap-store-assertions:
  type: string
  description: The assertions for the defined snap store proxy
snap-store-proxy:
  type: string
  description: The snap store proxy for installing snaps
snap-store-proxy-url:
  type: string
  description: The URL for the defined snap store proxy
ssl-hostname-verification:
  type: bool
  description: Whether SSL hostname verification is enabled (default true)
state-port:
  type: int
  description: The port used for mongo connections
storage-default-block-source:
  type: string
  description: The default block storage source for the model
storage-default-filesystem-source:
  type: string
  description: The default filesystem storage source for the model
syslog-ca-cert:
  type: string
  description: The certificate of the CA that signed the syslog server certificate,
    in PEM format.
syslog-client-cert:
  type: string
  description: The syslog client certificate in PEM format.
syslog-client-key:
  type: string
  description: The syslog client key in PEM format.
syslog-host:
  type: string
  description: The hostname:port of the syslog server.
test-mode:
  type: bool
  description: |-
    Whether the model is intended for testing.
    If true, accessing the charm store does not affect statistical
    data of the store. (default false)
transmit-vendor-metrics:
  type: bool
  description: Determines whether metrics declared by charms deployed into this model
    are sent for anonymized aggregate analytics
update-status-hook-interval:
  type: string
  description: How often to run the charm update-status hook, in human-readable time
    format (default 5m, range 1-60m)

Examples:

juju bootstrap
juju bootstrap --clouds
juju bootstrap --regions aws
juju bootstrap aws
juju bootstrap aws/us-east-1
juju bootstrap google joe-us-east1
juju bootstrap --config=~/config-rs.yaml google joe-syd
juju bootstrap --agent-version=2.2.4 aws joe-us-east-1
juju bootstrap --config bootstrap-timeout=1200 azure joe-eastus
juju bootstrap aws --storage-pool name=secret --storage-pool type=ebs --storage-pool encrypted=true

# For a bootstrap on k8s, setting the service type of the Juju controller service to LoadBalancer
juju bootstrap --config controller-service-type=loadbalancer

# For a bootstrap on k8s, setting the service type of the Juju controller service to External
juju bootstrap --config controller-service-type=external --config controller-external-name=controller.juju.is

See also:

add-credential
autoload-credentials
add-model
controller-config
model-config
set-constraints
show-cloud

Last updated 3 months ago.